Lack of balance and coordination are the most common reasons for bone fractures and various injuries. Balance, coordination, movement control and agility are the qualities associated with central nervous system.
Ability to coordinate movements – it is an ability to learn complicated moves and their combinations in both standard and changing conditions. People who have greater practice in performing different moves, usually have better coordination because it is easier to learn new movements for them. Coordination practice is specific – even if you know how to perform exact moves, you may not be as good in different types of movements. For example, not all basketball players are good swimmers.
Movement control is interaction of sensory and motor systems, which are influenced by the function of comprehension. The theory of movement control answers the question on how central nervous system organises and controls work of separate of organism systems whilst initiating a movement. The newest neurophysical experiments show that movement control is based on the hierarchy principle when higher control centres control the lower ones. Every level above, distinguishes itself by greater freedom of activity/work, competence, bigger intellect, emotionality and sense of movement. But every movement control level existing below distinguishes by certain freedom of activity – it is called the principle of movement control decentralization.
Learning movement is a process during which new movements skills are learnt. The greater variety of movements, the worse is the performance. However, these movements are retained for a longer period of time and transformed to various situations more effectively. When a person is tired, he uses much more muscles which he doesn’t need to for the same combination of movement. Also movements get less coordinative. Therefore a person needs to learn complexed movements when he is rested. Combinations of complicated movements demand more concentration, effort of will, so the best way to learn movements when tiredness is little or average.
Balance – it is ability to keep static body position stable or to keep body position accordingly while performing movements by different body parts and moving the whole body at a different pace. Balance can be dynamic and static. These types of balance don’t have a close connection. For example, if a man can stand on one leg, it doesn’t mean that he will come down from a mountain in his skis properly. Dynamic balance can also be divided into balance maintained while performing movements in standard conditions in regular order and balance, which becomes activated when a body is moving in changing conditions. Central nervous system regulates all information transmitted from the receptors while sending nerve impulses to muscles. Muscles help to keep balance while relaxing and contracting.
Agility is described as an ability to perform different complicated, fast and precise movements. Agility is a complex physical attribute, which is influenced by psychomotoric reaction speed, frequency of movements, muscle contraction speed, strength of the muscles, flexibility and the coordination function of central nervous system. Methods or test systems, which help to estimate agility, estimate quality and rate of the movements.